Finnish Museum of Natural History


Research articles

See Mycology Team's recent publications on Research Database TUHAT (University of Helsinki).


Members of the Mycology Team are actively participating in various book projects. Some of the resulting books are presented below. Our contact information can be found here.


Lichens of Finland

Soili Stenroos, Saara Velmala, Juha Pykälä & Teuvo Ahti (eds.) 2016: Lichens of Finland. Norrlinia 30. 896 p.
ISBN 978-951-51-2266-7.

Lichens of Finland is based on the two recent guidebooks: Suomen jäkäläopas (2011) and Suomen rupijäkälät (2015). In total, 212 genera and 748 species, subspecies, or varieties are presented in detail.

In the introduction topics such as lichen characters, taxonomy, habitats, and threatened taxa are discussed. Also, an overview of lichen research in Finland is provided. The detailed treatment of taxa includes genus and species descriptions as well as habitat data and distribution. Common synonyms and threat status are given. Each taxon is illustrated with a colour photograph, and distribution maps are given. An updated checklist of Finnish lichens, lichenicolous fungi, and some lichen-like fungi, altogether 1952 taxa, is provided.

This book is intended for professionals and nature enthusiasts alike. It was published for the 8th International Association for Lichenology Symposium, Helsinki, August 2016, and celebrates the lichenologists and the long tradition of lichenology in Finland.

Suomen rupijäkälät
(Crustose Lichens of Finland)

Soili Stenroos, Saara Velmala, Juha Pykälä & Teuvo Ahti (eds.) 2015: Suomen rupijäkälät. Norrlinia 28. 454 p. In Finnish, with English abstract and Finnish-English dictionary.
ISBN 978-951-51-0837-1.

Crustose lichens of Finland presents a selection of the most common or important crustose lichens known from Finland. The total number of species treated in detail is 300, while the total number of crusts in Finland is 1249.

In the introductory section topics such as morphology, secondary chemistry, habitat preferences, threatened species, specimen collecting, and photography of crusts are discussed. The treatment of taxa includes genus and species descriptions, the most common color reactions and chemical substances as well as ecological and distribution data. Common synonyms and threat status are given while relevant. Each taxon is illustrated with a color photograph and a distripution map. A few species are reported for the first time from Finland.

The scientific, Finnish and Swedish names of all taxa are indexed, and a glossary of therms is included. In addition, the book includes a basic Finnish-English dictionary of key words used in descriptions. Finally, a complete lists of Finnish lichens, as well as lichenicolous and a few lichen-like ascomycetes, altogether 1965 taxa, is presented.

Zambian mushrooms and mycology

Marja Härkönen, Tuomo Niemelä, Keddy Mbindo, Heikki Kotiranta & Graham Piearce 2015: Zambian mushrooms and mycology. Norrlinia vol. 29. 208 p. ISBN 978-951-51-0852-4.

Introductory chapters on Zambian environment, groups and structures of larger fungi, fungal ecology (with an African perspective: mycorrhiza with trees in miombo savannas, symbiosis with termites, decay of wood).

An extensive description on Zambian ethnomycology: what species are collected in the wild for food, which ones are rejected as poisonous or for other reasons, how mushrooms are traditionally prepared and preserved, economic importance of wild mushrooms, medicinal fungi, mushrooms in folklore. 19 recipes of mushroom meals, some of them traditional, and others adopted to suit the African kitchen.

Over 90 species of mushrooms, polypores and other fungi are fully described and illustrated with photographs of fresh specimens. The genera Amanita, Lactarius, Russula, Termitomyces and Cantharellus are highlighted. One polypore species (Hexagonia culmicola) is described as new.

Molecular systematics of the wood-inhabiting, lichen-forming genus Xylographa (Baeomycetales, Ostropomycetidae) with eight new species

Toby Spribille, Philipp Resl, Teuvo Ahti, Sergio Pérez-Ortega, Tor Tønsberg, Helmut Mayrhofer & H. Thorsten Lumbsch 2014. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 37(1): 87 p.

This is a world monograph of the ascomycete genus Xylographa, which mainly contains lignicolous lichens growing on old barkless logs, poles, walls, etc. (one species is purely sabrobic, without symbiotic algae, viz. X. erratica). Twenty species are recognized, eight of them being new to science.

The study is based fresh collections in the field in various countries and specimens preserved in 23 herbaria in Europe, Asia or North America. It is remarkable that 16 type specimens of species names are in Finland. The type species is X. parallela, but it turned out to be a collective species. Also a three-locus phylogeny is generated, based on 204 new sequences of the ITS, 28S nuclear rDNA or mitochondrial small subunit rDNA. Secondary chemistry was studied using thin-layer chromatography. The special elongated ascomata of the genus are called apothecia (earlier lirellae). Many species have wide distributions in the boreal zone, in particular, but others have rather restricted ranges, which are still very poorly known. A key to the species is provided as well as detailed color photographs.


Sienten ja metsien luontoarvot (Indicator fungi)

Tea von Bonsdorff, Ilkka Kytövuori, Jukka Vauras, Seppo Huhtinen, Panu Halme, Teppo Rämä, Lasse Kosonen & Stefan Jakobsson 2014: Sienet ja metsien luontoarvot. Norrlinia vol. 27. 272 p. In Finnish, with English summaries. ISBN 978-952-10-9945-8.

Many fungi are excellent indicator of forest status. They may not always be threatened or exceptionally rare, but still require certain characteristics from their habitats that are in need of protection. The focus in this book lies on macrofungi (agaricoid, boletoid, ramarioid and hydnoid). We will promote indicator fungi as a new tool in assessing valuable habitats. We offer a scoring method for 545 fungal species (or higher taxa) as indicator of valuable forest biotopes in Finland. Descriptions with photographs, microscopic illustrations and distribution maps are given for 147 of these. Moreover, we introduce the use of fungi as indicator species for the 14 listed valuable forest biotopes. The book gives instructions to both people asking for fungus monitoring and those actually carrying out the monitoring work. Two species are described as new: Psathyrella boreifasciculata Kytöv. & Liimat. sp. nova and Ramaria boreimaxima Kytöv. & Toivonen sp. nova. Craterellus caeruleofuscus A. H. Sm. is reported as new to Europe.

Terricolous Lichens in India

Himanshu Rai & Dalip K. Upreti (eds.) 2014: Terricolous Lichens in India. Vol. 2: Morphotaxonomic Studies. 313 p. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4939-0359-7. Most of the book consists of the following chapter: Rai, H., Khare, R., Upreti, D. K. & Ahti, T.: Terricolous lichens of India: Taxonomic keys and descriptions, pp. 17–294.

The book includes treatments of 312 lichen species. Illustrations in colour and distribution maps are also provided for every species. The work is largely based on extensive herbarium material 
in National Botanical Institute, Lucknow, Uttarpradesh, India, where Teuvo Ahti checked the identification of the specimens of Cladonia and other genera in 2000. Seven species are new records for India. It is a major work on lichens of the Himalayas, in particular.


Flora of the Guianas Series E (Fungi and Lichens), Cladoniaceae

Teuvo Ahti & Harrie J. M. Sipman 2013: Cladoniaceae. In Sylvia Mota de Oliveira (ed.) 2013: Flora of the Guianas ser. E (Fungi and Lichens), Cladoniaceae. 150 p. Kew Publishing. ISBN: 9781842464793.

A critical, illustrated treatment of the lichens of the family Cladoniaceae in Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana, as well in the adjacent Venezuelan Guyana (state of Bolívar) in northeastern South America. In all 56 species of Cladonia and two species of Cladia are recognized. Ten new species were described by the authors in a separate paper published earlier in the same year. Formerly the same authors (mostly Teuvo Ahti alone) have described 24 of those recognized here. Very many are endemic to the area, although widespread species are also present. All this is explained by the facts that the Guiana (Guayana) Highlands are a famous hotspot of thousands of endemic vascular plants and other organisms.

This work is an excellent example of the international projects in the Finnish Museum of Natural History to enhance the studies on tropical biodiversity by cooperation of different countries and preserve the specimens from all over the world.


Polypores of the Białowieża forest

Tuomo Niemelä 2013: Polypores of the Białowieża forest. 135 p. Bialowieski Park Narodowy, Bialowieza. ISBN978-83-87054-19-9.

A book introducing bracket fungi (polypores) found in the Białowieża National Park, Poland, and in the surrounding forest area (Puszcza Białowieska). Based on an inventory during the years 2008–2013, plus literature records. 177 species are described, including several new to Poland. The book includes a brief description of the area, characteristics of polypores, keys to species, illustrations, and an index including plenty of older and more familiar synonyms.

Nordic Lichen Flora 5. Cladoniaceae

Teuvo AhtiSoili Stenroos & Roland Moberg (eds.) 2013: Nordic Lichen Flora 5. Cladoniaceae. 117 p. + Photo CD. Museum of Evolution, Uppsala. ISBN-13: 978-91-85221-29-5.

A taxonomic survey of all the 100 taxa of the family Cladoniaceae present in the Nordic Countries written by Teuvo Ahti and Soili Stenroos, being authors in the treatments of the genera Cladonia, Pilophorus and Pycnothelia. The treatment of the genus Cladonia includes the reindeer lichens, formerly treated as a distinct genus Cladina. The book includes keys, descriptions (with colour photographs), provincial distributions (with maps) and notes on secondary chemistry, ecology and taxonomic problems. The distribution data primarily derive from seven major lichen herbaria in the Nordic Countries, with additions from the members of the editorial team of the whole flora project in each country. Data from molecular phylogeny have been applied, but all the species have not yet been sufficiently studied.

Suomen limasienet 
(The Myxomycetes of Finland)

Marja Härkönen & Elina Varis 2012: Suomen limasienet. Norrlinia vol. 25. 240 p. In Finnish, with English abstract. ISSN 0780-3214, ISBN 978-952-10-8434-8.

All the 213 species of myxomycetes found in Finland are described
in this identification book. In the first section the morphology, biology and ecology of myxomycetes are discussed, and advice how to collect and identify them is given. Keys to the classes and genera follow. Genera and species are described under the classes in alphabetical order. 

Almost all the species are presented with colour illustrations. The drawings are made by the authors and the editor of this book, Tuomo Niemelä. The photographs are taken by the 21 amateurs and professionals listed on the title page. Sincere thanks to all of them.

At the end of the book you can find a table of distribution of the species in Finland, explanations of the terms used, an annotated list of selected identification books, and an index to the species.

Suomen kääpien määritysopas 
(Guide to the polypores of Finland)

Tuomo Niemelä 2012: Suomen kääpien määritysopas. Botanical Bulletins of the University of Helsinki, vol. 194. 118 p. In Finnish and English (keys only). ISBN 978-952-10-8260-3.

Course booklet for field training in polypore identification, including keys, brief descriptions, and name indexes. 19th updated edition, introducing 240 species. Antrodia hyalinaA. tanakaiAporpium macroporumOligoporus romelliiPorotheleum fimbriatumSkeletocutis delicata and S. "exilis" (nom. prov.) first described in this issue.

Suomen jäkäläopas
(Lichen Flora of Finland)

Soili Stenroos, Teuvo Ahti, Katileena Lohtander & Leena Myllys (eds.) 2011: Suomen jäkäläopas. Norrlinia vol. 21. 534 p. In Finnish, with English abstract. ISBN 978-952-10-6804-1.

In the Lichen flora of Finland, we present all the macrolichens and some of the most common crustose lichens known from Finland. The total number of species, subspecies or varieties treated is 481. In the introductory section topics such as lichen morphology, chemistry, reproduction, taxonomy, ecology and threatened species are discussed.

An overview of lichen research in Finland is also provided. The treatment of taxa includes genus and species descriptions, the most common colour reactions and chemical substances as well as ecological and distribution data. Common synonyms and threat status are given where relevant. For genera with multiple taxa an identification key is also included. Furthermore, a key to parmelioid taxa is provided. Each taxon is illustrated with a colour photograph and a distribution map. Distribution data are based on field studies of the authors, herbarium specimens and literature.

The scientific, Finnish and Swedish names of all taxa are indexed, and a glossary of terms is included. In addition, the book includes a simple Finnish-English dictionary of key words used in descriptions as well as a list of selected references.

Nordic Lichen Flora 4. Parmeliaceae

Arne Thell & Roland Moberg (eds.) 2011: Nordic Lichen Flora 4. Parmeliaceae. 184 p. + Photo CD. Museum of Evolution, Uppsala. ISBN 978-91-85221-24-0.

A taxonomic survey of all the taxa of the family Parmeliaceae in the Nordic Countries written by 13 specialists, among them Teuvo Ahti, Leena Myllys and Saara Velmala, being authors in the treatments of the genera Alectoria, Bryoria, Hypogymnia, Parmelia, Parmeliopsis, Pseudephebe, Pseudevernia, Tuckermannopsis and Vulpicida. The book includes keys, descriptions (with colour photographs), provincial distributions (with maps) and notes on secondary chemistry, ecology and taxonomic problems. 152 species in 41 genera are recognized. A number of nomenclatural novelties are included.

Lichens of the Pasvik Strict Nature Reserve

M. A. Fadeeva, T. A. Dudoreva, G. P. Urbanavichus & T. Ahti 2011: Lichens of the Pasvik Strict Nature Reserve (annotated checklist). 80 p. Kola Science Centre. In Russian. ISBN 978-5-91137-171-5.

This work presents an annotated checklist of lichens, lichenicolous fungi and affiliated saprotrophic fungi, 277 species and 5 subspecies found within the Pasvik Strict Nature Reserve, Murmansk Region, NW Russia, as well as with 64 species or infraspecific taxa occurring only in the territory around the reserve. Data on their distribution, frequency of occurrence, and relations with specific substrates and ecotopes are provided.

Kääpien mikroskooppinen määritys 
(Microscopic identification of polypores)

Tuomo Niemelä 2011: Kääpien mikroskooppinen määritys. Botanical Bulletins of the University of Helsinki, vol. 193, third edition. 91 p. In Finnish, with English abstract. ISBN 978-952-10-5931-5.

Course booklet for microscopy, including description of the polypore basidiocarp structure, keys, genus descriptions, and ca. 60 microscopic drawings of polypore species. A new improved formula for Cotton Blue. An updated check-list includes 239 species found in Finland, including some new ones.

Flora Liquenológica Iberica 4. Cladoniaceae

Ana Rosa Burgaz & Teuvo Ahti 2009: Flora Liquenológica Iberica. 4. Cladoniaceae. 111 p. Sociedad Española de Liquenología, Madrid. ISSN 1696-0513.

A treatment in Spanish of the 82 species of Cladoniaceae found in Spain, Portugal and Andorra based on extensive field and herbarium studies by the authors. Illustrated with original drawings. The distributions of all the species on the Iberian Peninsula are indicated with dot maps and citations of the provinces. The descriptions include anatomical measurements and secondary chemistry based on TLC analyses.

Catalogue of lichens and allied fungi
of Murmansk Region, Russia

Gennadii UrbanavichusTeuvo Ahti & Irina Urbanavichene
2008: Catalogue of lichens and allied fungi of Murmansk Region, Russia. Norrlinia vol. 17. 80 p. ISSN 0780-3214, ISBN 978-952-10-4921-7.

A comprehensive catalogue in English and Russian of the lichens, lichenicolous fungi and some allied fungi of the Murmansk Region,
in all 1139 species. Many reports are new to the area and many earlier records are rejected. The work was based on field work and herbarium studies in Russia and Finland. Many records derive from the early collections by Veli Räsänen, Matti Laurila and Anna V. Dombrovskaya. The provincial distribution is given for all species. A critical synonymy and an extensive bibliography is provided.

Conspectus of lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Republic of Karelia

M. A. FadeevaN. S. GolubkovaO. Vitikainen & T. Ahti 2008 ('2007'): Conspectus of lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Republic of Karelia (In Russian). 194 p. Carelian Research Centre, Russian Academy of Science. ISBN 978-5-9274-0321-9.

A catalogue of 1256 species of lichens and mainly lichenicolous
fungi are reported from Republic of Karelia. The area was earlier largely studied by Finnish authors, such as W. Nylander, J. P. Norrlin, E. A. Vainio, V. Räsänen and M. Laurila, whose collections are primarily located in Finland. There records were united with the
more recent Russian collections by V. P. Savicz, M. Fadeeva, D. Himelbrant and others. The authors of the book also conducted field studies in Karelia. In principle all the literature records are cited and provincial distributions of all species are given. Most provinces are still poorly explored, however, but the book represents an indispensable baseline for further research.

Lichens and allied fungi of the Eastern Leningrad Region

Ekaterina KuznetsovaTeuvo Ahti & Dmitry Himelbrant 2007: Lichens and allied fungi of the Eastern Leningrad Region. Norrlinia vol. 16. 62 p. ISSN 0780-3214, ISBN 978-952-10-4083-2.

In the sparsely populated eastern half of the Leningrad 520 species of lichens and allied fungi were recorded. Much of the work is based on the authors' collections in recent times. Considerable earlier collections were made by some Finnish botanists, primarily F. Elfving, A. K. Cajander, and during the World War II the soldiers V. Räsänen, U. Perttula and R. Ruotsalo. The work includes numerous considerable range extensions of many little known species. Most of the collections are located in Helsinki or in the herbarium of the State University of St. Petersburg.

Suomen sieniopas 
(Guide to Finnish fungi)

Pertti SaloTuomo Niemelä & Ulla Salo 2006: Suomen sieniopas. 512 p. Botanical Museum & WSOY Publishing House. ISBN 951-0-30359-3 (Finnish edition), ISBN 978-9949-14-326-9 (Estonian edition).

Field guide to larger fungi of Finland, 900 species briefly described, with colour photographs. Several recently described northern species are included. Also in Estonian language.

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Torikseened Soomes ja Eestis (Polypores in Finland and Estonia)

Tuomo Niemelä 2005: Torikseened Soomes ja Eestis (Estonian-language edition of the Finnish original). Eesti Loodusfoto.
ISBN 978-9985-830-86-4.

Applied for Estonia by Erast Parmasto, Tartu, with newly written ecology and distribution data, and additional species. Detailed descriptions of all the included species, and most of them colour illustrated with in situ photographs, over 300 pictures. Estonian names for the species, and updated Latin nomenclature. The first comprehensive treatment of Estonian polypores.

Suomen helttasienten ja tattien ekologia, levinneisyys ja uhanalaisuus (The ecology, distribution and Red List status of Finnish agarics and boletes)

Pertti SaloTuomo NiemeläUlla Nummela-Salo & Esteri Ohenoja (eds.) 2005: Suomen helttasienten ja tattien ekologia, levinneisyys ja uhanalaisuus. Suomen Ympäristö, vol. 769. 526 p. Finnish Environment Institute. In Finnish, with English abstract. ISBN 952-11-1996-9.

A check-list of all agarics and boleti known to occur in Finland, altogether 1702 species. Plenty of data on the distribution and ecology of each species, their herbarium specimens and literature references. Updated Latin nomenclature and national Finnish standard names for each species. Available online.

Käävät — puiden sienet 
(Polypores, lignicolous fungi)

Tuomo Niemelä 2005: Käävät — puiden sienet. Special issue of Norrlinia 13. 320 p. In Finnish, with Latin species names and English summary. ISBN 952-10-2744-4.

All the 230 species found in Finland, plus 11 from neighbouring areas. Detailed descriptions, microscopy, spore dimensions based on new data from ca. 30 000 measurements including mean values and length/width ratios. Illustrated with ca. 300 colour pictures, mostly taken in the field. Keys, character tables to genera, index.

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Vinokkaiden määritysopas 
(Guide to the pleurotoid fungi of Finland)

Stefan Jakobsson & Tuomo Niemelä 2004: Vinokkaiden määritysopas. Botanical Bulletins of the University of Helsinki, vol. 183. 60 p. In Finnish, with Swedish and English summary. ISBN 952-10-2714-2.

Identification keys to genera and species, and brief descriptions of pleurotoid fungi found in the country and in neighbouring areas. About 80 species are treated. Terminology (also English terms) explained, with indexes of synonyms and accepted names. 

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Tanzanian mushrooms, edible, harmful and other fungi

Marja HärkönenTuomo Niemelä & Leonard Mwasumbi 2003: Tanzanian mushrooms, edible, harmful and other fungi. Norrlinia vol. 10. 200 p. ISSN 0780-3214, ISBN 952-10-1420-2.

Complete, colour-illustrated descriptions are presented for 105 larger Basidiomycetes occurring in Tanzania: 46 agarics, 4 boletes, 4 pleurotoid fungi, 6 chanterelles, 1 ramarioid fungus, 35 polypores, 4 stereoid fungi, 3 gastromycetes and 2 auricularioid fungi. A special emphasis is laid on edible and poisonous species, and on wood-rotting fungi. The vegetation of Tanzania is briefly outlined, as well as the structures and terminology of different fungal groups and their ecology. Ethnomycological data were collected with 103 interviews among 35 tribes from rural Tanzania. A wide array of vernacular names are listed, in particular for Tanzanian edible mushrooms. Three new species are described: Russula harkoneniana Buyck, Phellinus amanii Niemelä and Clavulina wisoli R.H. Petersen. A new combination, Funalia polyzona (Pers.) Niemelä, is made.

Polypores of Finland and adjacent Russia

Tuomo Niemelä 2001: Polypores of Finland and adjacent Russia. Norrlinia vol. 8. 120 p. In Russian, with English abstract. ISBN 952-10-0107-0.

Over 220 species fully described, including many rare and poorly known species. Over 90 species illustrated with black-and-white photographs taken in situ, and drawings of 44 species. Keys to pileate species using macroscopic characters, character tables to all the species. Index to accepted Latin names.

Person in charge of the page: 
Saara Velmala